Peppermint Terpenoid Biosynthesis

Outline of terpenoid essential oil biosynthesis in peppermint(Mentha x piperita) (only major products shown)

Peppermint terpenoid biosynthesis pathway

Gene/enzyme annotation for terpenoid essential oil biosynthesis in peppermint

  Annotation Comments Gene Protein
(1) Geranyl diphosphate synthase; Dimethylallyltranstransferase Heterotetramer of two large and two small subunits; Crystal structure available. AF182827(small subunit); AF182828(large subunit) EC
(2) (2E,6E)-Farnesyl diphosphate synthase   AF384040  
(3) 1,8-Cineole synthase Not yet characterized    
(4) α-Terpineol synthase Not yet characterized    
(5) β-Caryophyllene synthase Not yet characterized    
(6) Germacrene D synthase Not yet characterized    
(7) (-)-(4S)-Limonene synthase Myrcene, α-pinene, β-pinene are side products of limonene synthase catalysis; Crystal structure of spearmint ortholog available. EU108697 EC
(8) (-)-4S-Limonene-3-hydroxylase; (S)-Limonene 3-monooxygenase   AF124817 (PM2 gene); AF124816 (PM17 gene) EC
(9) (-)-Isopiperitenol dehydrogenase   AY641428 EC
(10) (-)-Isopiperitenone reductase   AY300162 EC
(11) (+)-cis-Isopulegone isomerase Enzyme activity demonstrated in crude extracts.    
(12) (+)-Pulegone reductase   AY300163 EC
(13) (+)-Menthofuran synthase   AF346833 EC
(14) (-)-Menthone:(-)-(3R)-menthol reductase; (-)-Menthol dehydrogenase Yields 95% (-)-(3R)-menthol and 5% (+)-(3S)-neomenthol from (-)-menthone as substrate;
Yields 87% (+)-(3R)-neoisomenthol and 13% (+)-(3S)-isomenthol from (+)-isomenthone as substrate
AY288138 EC
(15) (-)-Menthone:(+)-(3S)-neomenthol reductase; (+)-Neomenthol dehydrogenase Yields 94% (+)-(3S)-neomenthol and 6% (-)-(3R)-menthol from (-)-menthone as substrate; Yields 86% (+)-(3S)-isomenthol and 14% (+)-(3R)-neoisomenthol from (+)-isomenthone as substrate AY288137 EC
References (reviews):

Croteau et al. (2005) Naturwissenschaften 92, 562-577.
Lange et al. (2014), in press.

Not on pathway map

Annotation Comments Gene Protein
(E)-β-Farnesene synthase Gene function characterized biochemically. AF024615 EC
cis-Muuroladiene synthase Gene function characterized biochemically. AJ786641 EC